- F(?) Virtual Window Manager (version 2.xx) for X11


       fvwm2 [ options ]


       Fvwm is a window manager for X11.  It is a  derivative  of
       twm,  redesigned to minimize memory consumption, provide a
       3-D look to window frames, and provide  a  simple  virtual
       desktop.  Version 2.xx uses only slightly more memory than
       1.xx, mostly due to some global options being able  to  be
       window specific now.

       Fvwm  provides  both  a large virtual desktop and multiple
       disjoint  desktops  which  can  be  used   separately   or
       together.   The virtual desktop allows you to pretend that
       your video screen is  really  quite  large,  and  you  can
       scroll  around  within the desktop.  The multiple disjoint
       desktops allow you to pretend that you really have several
       screens  to  work  at, but each screen is completely unre-
       lated to the others.

       Fvwm provides keyboard accelerators  which  allow  you  to
       perform  most  window-manager  functions, including moving
       and resizing windows, and operating  the  window-manager's
       menus, using keyboard shortcuts.

       Fvwm  has  also blurred the distinction between configura-
       tion commands and built-in commands that most  window-man-
       agers  make.   Configuration commands typically set fonts,
       colors, menu contents, key and  mouse  function  bindings,
       while built-in commands typically do things like raise and
       lower  windows.   Fvwm  makes  no  such  distinction,  and
       allows,  to  the  extent that is practical, anything to be
       changed at any time.

       Other noteworthy differences between Fvwm  and  other  X11
       window  managers  are  the introduction of the SloppyFocus
       and per-window focus methods.  SloppyFocus  is  focus-fol-
       lows-mouse, but focus is not removed from windows when the
       mouse leaves a window and enters the  root  window.   When
       sloppy  focus  is  used  as the default focus style, it is
       nice to make windows in which you do  not  typically  type
       into  (xmag,  xman,  xgraph, xclock, xbiff, etc) click-to-
       focus, so that your terminal  window  doesn't  lose  focus


       Since  fvwm is derived from twm code it shares twm's copy-
       rights.  Since nearly every line  of  twm  code  has  been
       changed,  the  twm copyright has been removed from most of
       copyright is still considered to be the same as twm's.

       fvwm is copyright 1988 by Evans  and  Sutherland  Computer
       Corporation,  Salt  Lake  City, Utah, and 1989 by the Mas-
       sachusetts  Institute  of  Technology,   Cambridge,   Mas-
       sachusetts,  All  rights  reserved.   It is also copyright
       1993 and 1994 by Robert Nation.

       Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this soft-
       ware and its documentation for any purpose and without fee
       is hereby  granted,  provided  that  the  above  copyright
       notice  appear  in all copies and that both that copyright
       notice and this permission  notice  appear  in  supporting
       documentation,  and  that  the names of Evans & Sutherland
       and M.I.T. not be used in advertising  in  publicity  per-
       taining  to distribution of the software without specific,
       written prior permission.



       Fvwm puts a decorative border around most  windows.   This
       border  consists  of  a  bar  on each side and a small "L"
       shaped section on each corner.  There is an additional top
       bar called the title bar which is used to display the name
       of the window.  In addition, there are up to 10  title-bar
       buttons.   The top, side, and bottom bars are collectively
       known as the side-bars.  The corner pieces are called  the

       Unless  the standard defaults files are modified, pressing
       mouse button 1 in the title or side-bars will begin a move
       operation  on the window.  Pressing button 1 in the corner
       frame pieces will begin a resize operation.  Pressing but-
       ton  2  anywhere in the border brings up an extensive list
       of window operations.

       Up to ten title-bar buttons may exist.  Their use is  com-
       pletely  user  definable.  The default configuration has a
       title-bar button on each side of the title-bar.   The  one
       on  the left is used to bring up a list of window options,
       regardless of which mouse button is used.  The one on  the
       bound  to them.  See the section on the "Mouse" configura-
       tion parameter below.


       Fvwm provides multiple virtual desktops for users who wish
       to  use  them.   The  screen  is a viewport onto a desktop
       which may be larger than  the  screen.   Several  distinct
       desktops  can  be  accessed (concept: one desktop for each
       project, or one desktop for each  application,  when  view
       applications  are  distinct).   Since  each desktop can be
       larger than the physical screen, divided into m by n pages
       which  are  each  the size of the physical screen, windows
       which are larger  than  the  screen  or  large  groups  of
       related windows can easily be viewed.

       The  (m  by  n) size (i.e. number of pages) of the virtual
       desktops can be changed any time, by using the DeskTopSize
       built-in  command.  All virtual desktops must be (are) the
       same size.  The total number of distinct desktops need not
       be  specified,  but  is limited to approximately 4 billion
       total.  All windows on a range of desktops can  be  viewed
       in the Pager, a miniature view of the desktops.  The pager
       is an accessory program, called a  module,  which  is  not
       essential  for the window manager to operate.  Windows may
       also be listed, along with their geometries, in  a  window
       list,  accessible  as a pop-up menu, or as a separate win-
       dow, called the FvwmWinList (another module).

       "Sticky" windows are windows which transcend  the  virtual
       desktop  by "Sticking to the screen's glass."  They always
       stay put on the screen.  This  is  convenient  for  things
       like  clocks and xbiff's, so you only need to run one such
       gadget and it always stays with you.  Icons  can  also  be
       made to stick to the glass, if desired.

       Window  geometries  are  specified relative to the current
       viewport.  That is:

            xterm -geometry +0+0

       will always show up in the upper-left hand corner  of  the
       visible portion of the screen.  It is permissible to spec-
       ify geometries which place windows on the virtual desktop,
       but off the screen.  For example, if the visible screen is
       1000 by 1000 pixels, and the desktop size is 3x3, and  the
       current  viewport  is at the upper left hand corner of the
       desktop, then invoking:

            xterm -geometry +1000+1000

       to the lower right hand corner of the screen  and  waiting
       for it to scroll into view.

       There  is currently no way to cause a window to map onto a
       desktop other  than  the  currently  active  desk,  or  is

       A geometry specified as something like:

            xterm -geometry -5-5

       will  generally place the window's lower right hand corner
       5 pixels from the lower right corner of the  visible  por-
       tion  of  the  screen. Not all applications support window
       geometries with negative offsets.

       Some applications that understand standard Xt command line
       arguments  and X resources, like xterm and xfontsel, allow
       the user to specify the start-up desk on the command line:

            xterm -xrm "*Desk:1"

       will start an xterm on desk number 1. Not all applications
       understand this option, however.

       You could achieve the same result with the following  line
       in your .Xdefaults file:

            XTerm*Desk: 1


       During  initialization,  fvwm will search for a configura-
       tion file which describes key and button bindings,  and  a
       few  other  things.   The  format  of  these files will be
       described later.  First, fvwm will search for a file named
       .fvwm2rc  in  the  users home directory.  Failing that, it
       will look for /usr/lib/X11/fvwm2/.fvwm2rc for  system-wide
       defaults  (which  on  Debian  systems should be a symbolic
       link to the real file, /etc/X11/fvwm2/system.fvwm2rc).  If
       that file is not found, fvwm will be basically useless.

       Fvwm  will  set  two  environment  variables which will be
       inherited by  its  children.   These  are  $DISPLAY  which
       describes  the display on which fvwm is running.  $DISPLAY
       may be unix:0.0 or :0.0, which doesn't work too well  when
       passed  through  rsh  to  another machine, so $HOSTDISPLAY
       will also be set and will use a network-ready  description
       of  the  display.  $HOSTDISPLAY will always use the TCP/IP
       transport protocol (even for a local connection) so  $DIS-
       PLAY  should  be used for local connections, as it may use
       Function  and  RestartFunction,  which are executed during
       Initialization and Restarts (respectively).  These may  be
       customized  in the user's rc file via the AddToFunc facil-
       ity (described later) to  start  up  modules,  xterms,  or
       whatever you'd like have started by fvwm.

       Fvwm  also has a special exit function: ExitFunction, exe-
       cuted when exiting or restarting before actually  quitting
       or  anything  else.   It  could be used to explicitly kill
       modules, etc.


       Fvwm has a number of ways in which you can  reduce  memory
       usage  by limiting the use of certain features during com-
       pilation.  If you have trouble using a certain command  or
       feature,  check  to  see if support for it was included at
       compile time.  Optional features are  described  fully  in
       the Fvwm.tmpl Imake configuration file.


       The basic Fvwm configuration uses monochrome bitmap icons,
       similar to twm.  If XPM extensions are compiled  in,  then
       color  icons similar to ctwm, MS-Windows, or the Macintosh
       icons can be used.  In order to use these options you will
       need  the XPM package, as described in the Fvwm.tmpl Imake
       configuration file.

       If both the SHAPE and XPM options are compiled in you will
       get shaped color icons, which are very spiffy.


       A  module  is  a separate program which runs as a separate
       Unix process but transmits commands to  fvwm  to  execute.
       Users  can  write  their  own  modules  to do any weird or
       bizarre manipulations without bloating  or  affecting  the
       integrity of fvwm itself.

       Modules  MUST be spawned by fvwm so that it can set up two
       pipes for fvwm and the module to  communicate  with.   The
       pipes  will  already be open for the module when it starts
       and the file descriptors for the  pipes  are  provided  as
       command line arguments.

       Modules  can be spawned during fvwm at any time during the
       X session by use of the Module built-in command.   Modules
       can  exist  for the duration of the X session, or can per-
       form a single task and  exit.   If  the  module  is  still
       active when fvwm is told to quit, then fvwm will close the
       communication pipes and wait to receive a SIGCHLD from the
       sure fvwm will exit after approximately 30 seconds anyway.
       The number of simultaneously executing modules is  limited
       by the operating system's maximum number of simultaneously
       open files, usually between 60 and 256.

       Modules simply transmit text commands to the fvwm built-in
       command  engine.   Text  commands are formatted just as in
       the case of a mouse binding in the  .fvwm2rc  setup  file.
       Certain  auxiliary  information is also transmitted, as in
       the sample module FvwmButtons.  The FvwmButtons module  is
       documented in its own man page.


       Fvwm  attempts  to  be  ICCCM 1.1 compliant.  In addition,
       ICCCM states that it should be possible  for  applications
       to receive ANY keystroke, which is not consistent with the
       keyboard shortcut approach used in  fvwm  and  most  other
       window managers.

       The ICCCM states that windows possessing the property

                            Client accepts input or input focus: False

       should not be given the keyboard input focus by the window
       manager.  These windows can take the input focus by  them-
       selves,  however.  A number of applications set this prop-
       erty, and yet expect the window-manager to give  them  the
       keyboard  focus  anyway,  so fvwm provides a window-style,
       "Lenience", which will allow fvwm to overlook  this  ICCCM


       M4  pre-processing is handled by a module in fvwm-2.0.  To
       get more details, try man FvwmM4.  In short, if  you  want
       fvwm  to  parse  your files with m4, then replace the word
       "Read" with "FvwmM4" in your .fvwm2rc file (if it  appears
       at all), and start fvwm with the command

            fvwm -cmd "FvwmM4 .fvwm2rc"


       Cpp  is the C-language pre-processor.  fvwm-2.0 offers cpp
       processing which mirrors the m4 pre-processing.   To  find
       out  about  it,  re-read the M4 section above, but replace
       "m4" with "cpp".

       Windows can  be  automatically  raised  when  it  receives
       focus,  or  some  number of milliseconds after it receives
       focus, by using the auto-raise module, FvwmAuto.


       These are the command line options that are recognized  by

       -f config_file
              Causes   fvwm   to   Read  config_file  instead  of
              ".fvwm2rc" as its  initialization  file.   This  is
              equivalent to -cmd "Read config_file".

       -cmd config_command
              Causes  fvwm to use config_command instead of "Read
              .fvwm2rc" as  its  initialization  command.   (Note
              that  up to 10 -f and -cmd parameters can be given,
              and they are executed in the order specified.)

       -debug Puts X transactions in synchronous mode, which dra-
              matically  slows  things  down, but guarantees that
              fvwm's internal error messages are  correct.   Also
              causes fvwm to output debug messages while running.

       -d displayname
              Manage the display called "displayname" instead  of
              the  name  obtained  from  the environment variable

       -s     On a multi-screen display, run  fvwm  only  on  the
              screen  named  in the $DISPLAY environment variable
              or provided through the -d option.  Normally,  fvwm
              will attempt to start up on all screens of a multi-
              screen display.

              Print the version of fvwm to stderr.


       The configuration file is used to describe mouse and  but-
       ton  bindings,  colors,  the  virtual  display  size,  and
       related items.  The initialization configuration  file  is
       typically  called  ".fvwm2rc".  By using the "Read" built-
       in, it is easy to read in new configuration files  as  you

       Lines  beginning  with '#' will be ignored by fvwm.  Lines
       starting with '*' are expected to contain module  configu-
       ration  commands  (rather  than configuration commands for
       fvwm itself).
       and built-in commands, so anything mentioned in the built-
       in commands section  can be placed on a line by itself for
       fvwm  to execute as it reads the configuration file, or it
       can be placed as an executable command in a menu or  bound
       to  a  mouse  button  or a keyboard key.  It is left as an
       exercise for the user to decide which function make  sense
       for initialization and which ones make sense for run-time.


       Fvwm supports a set of built-in  functions  which  can  be
       bound  to  keyboard  or mouse buttons.  If fvwm expects to
       find a built-in function in a command, but fails, it  will
       check  to  see  if  the specified command should have been
       "Function (rest of command)"  or  "Module  (rest  of  com-
       mand)".   This  allows  complex functions or modules to be
       invoked in a manner which is  fairly  transparent  to  the
       configuration file.

       Example:  the  .fvwm2rc  file  contains the line "HelpMe".
       Fvwm will look for a built-in command called "HelpMe", and
       will  fail.  Next  it will look for a user-defined complex
       function called "HelpMe".  If no such user  defined  func-
       tion  exists,  Fvwm  will  try  to execute a module called

       In previous versions of fvwm,  quoting  was  critical  and
       irrational  in  the  .fvwmrc  file.  As of fvwm-2, most of
       this has been cleared up.  Quotes are required  only  when
       needed  to  make  fvwm  consider two or more words to be a
       single argument.  Unnecessary quoting is allowed.  If  you
       want a quote character in your text, you must escape it by
       using the backslash character.  For example, if you have a
       pop-up menu called Window-Ops, then you don't need quotes:
       Popup Window-Ops, but if  you  replace  the  dash  with  a
       space, then you need quotes: Popup "Window Ops".

       AddButtonStyle button [state] [style] [ -- [!]flag ... ]
              Adds  a  button  style  to button.  button can be a
              button number, or one of "All," "Left," or "Right."
              state  can  be  "ActiveUp,"  "ActiveDown" or "Inac-
              tive."  If state is  omitted,  then  the  style  is
              added  to  every  state.   If  the button style and
              flags are enclosed in  parentheses,  then  multiple
              state  definitions  can be placed on a single line.
              Flags  for  additional  button  styles  cannot   be
              changed after definition.

              Buttons  are  drawn  in  the  order  of definition,
              beginning with the most  recent  ButtonStyle,  fol-
              descriptions of available styles and flags, see the
              ButtonStyle command.  Examples:

                   ButtonStyle 1 Pixmap led.xpm -- Top Left
                   ButtonStyle 1 ActiveDown HGradient 8 grey black
                   ButtonStyle All --  UseTitleStyle
                   AddButtonStyle 1 ActiveUp (Pixmap a.xpm) ActiveDown (Pixmap b.xpm -- Top)
                   AddButtonStyle 1 Vector 4 50x30@1 70x70@0 30x70@0 50x30@1

              Initially for this example all  button  states  are
              set  to  a  pixmap.   The  second line replaces the
              ActiveDown state with a gradient (it overrides  the
              pixmap  assigned  to  it  in the line before, which
              assigned the same style to every state).  Then, the
              UseTitleStyle  flag  is  set for all buttons, which
              causes fvwm to draw any styles set with  TitleStyle
              before  drawing  the  buttons.  Finally, AddButton-
              Style is used to place additional pixmaps for  both
              ActiveUp  and ActiveDown states and a Vector button
              style is drawn on top of all state.

       AddTitleStyle [state] [style] [ -- [!]flag ... ]
              Adds a title style to the title bar.  state  should
              be  one of "ActiveUp," "ActiveDown," or "Inactive."
              If state is omitted, then the  style  is  added  to
              every  state.   If the style and flags are enclosed
              in parentheses, then multiple state definitions can
              be  placed on a single line.  This command is quite
              similar to the AddButtonStyle command (see  above).

              Title  bars  are  drawn in the order of definition,
              beginning with the most recent TitleStyle, followed
              by  those  added  with AddTitleStyle.  To clear the
              title style stack, change style flags, or  for  the
              descriptions of available styles and flags, see the
              TitleStyle and ButtonStyle commands.

       AddToDecor decor
              Add or divert commands to the decor named decor.  A
              decor  is a name given to the set of commands which
              affect  button  styles,  title-bar  styles,  border
              styles, hilight colors, and window fonts.  If decor
              does not exist it is created; otherwise the  exist-
              ing decor is modified.

              Created  decors  start out exactly like the default
              fvwm decor without any style definitions.  A  given
              decor  may  be applied to a set of windows with the
              rently assigned to it.

              AddToDecor is similar in usage to the AddToMenu and
              AddToFunc commands, except that menus and functions
              are  replaced   by   ButtonStyle,   AddButtonStyle,
              TitleStyle,  AddTitleStyle,  BorderStyle,  Hilight-
              Color and WindowFont commands.  Decors created with
              AddToDecor  can  be  manipulated  with ChangeDecor,
              DestroyDecor, UpdateDecor, and the  UseDecor  Style

              The  following  example  creates a decor and style,
              both named "flatness."   Despite  having  the  same
              name, they are distinct entities:

                   AddToDecor flatness
                   + ButtonStyle All ActiveUp (-- flat) Inactive (-- flat)
                   + TitleStyle -- flat
                   + BorderStyle -- HiddenHandles NoInset
                   + HilightColor white navy
                   Style "flatness" UseDecor flatness,Color white/grey40,HandleWidth 4

                   Style "xterm" UseStyle flatness

              An  existing  window's decor may be reassigned with
              ChangeDecor, or  a  Style  command  followed  by  a
              Recapture.   The decorations of all windows or of a
              specific decor  can  be  updated  with  UpdateDecor
              (useful  after  decorations  are modified; changing
              Style options requires  a  Recapture  instead).   A
              decor can be destroyed with DestroyDecor.

              Begins  or  adds to a menu definition.  Typically a
              menu definition looks like this:

                   AddToMenu Utilities "Utilities"     Title
                   +                   "Xterm"         Exec  xterm -e tcsh
                   +                   "Rxvt"          Exec  rxvt
                   +                   "Remote Logins" Popup Remote-Logins
                   +                   "Top"           Exec  rxvt -T Top -n Top -e top
                   +                   "Calculator"    Exec  xcalc
                   +                   "Xman"          Exec  xman
                   +                   "Xmag"          Exec  xmag
                   +                   "emacs"         Exec  xemacs
                   +                   "Mail"          MailFunction xmh "-font fixed"
                   +                   ""              Nop
                   +                   "Modules"       Popup Module-Popup
                   +                   ""              Nop
                   +                   "Exit Fvwm"     Popup Quit-Verify

                   Mouse 1 R       A       Menu Utilities Nop


                   Mouse 1 R       A       Popup Utilities

              There is no end-of-menu symbol.  Menus do not  have
              to  be  defined  in  a  contiguous  region  of  the
              .fvwm2rc file.  The quoted  portion  in  the  above
              examples  is  the  menu-label, which will appear in
              the menu when the user pops it up.   The  remaining
              portion  is a built-in command which should be exe-
              cuted if the user selects that menu item.  An empty
              menu-label ("") and the Nop function can be used to
              insert a separator into the menu.

              If the menu-label contains a  sub-string  which  is
              set  off  by stars, then the text between the stars
              is expected to  be  the  name  of  an  xpm-icon  or
              bitmap-file to insert in the menu.  For example

                   +         "Calculator*xcalc.xpm*"  Exec xcalc

              inserts  a  menu  item  labeled "calculator" with a
              picture of a calculator above it.  The following:

                   +         "*xcalc.xpm*" Exec xcalc

              Omits the "Calculator" label, but leaves  the  pic-

              If  the  menu-label  contains a sub-string which is
              set off by percent signs, then the text between the
              percent signs is expected to be the name of an xpm-
              icon or bitmap-file to insert to the  left  of  the
              menu label.  For example

                   +         "Calculator%xcalc.xpm%"  Exec xcalc

              inserts  a  menu  item  labeled "calculator" with a
              picture of a calculator to the left.   The  follow-

                   +         "%xcalc.xpm%" Exec xcalc

              Omits  the  "Calculator" label, but leaves the pic-
              ture.  The pictures used with this  feature  should
              be small (perhaps 16x16).

              Begins  or add to a function definition.  Here's an

                   AddToFunc Move-or-Raise         "I" Raise
                   +                               "M" Move
                   +                               "D" Lower

              The function name is Move-or-Raise,  and  could  be
              invoked from a menu or a mouse binding or key bind-

                   Mouse 1 TS      A       Move-or-Raise

              The quoted portion of the function tells what  kind
              of  action  will  trigger the command which follows
              it.  "I" stands for Immediate, and is  executed  as
              soon  as  the  function is invoked.  "M" stands for
              Motion, i.e.  if the user starts moving the  mouse.
              "C" stands for Click, i.e., if the user presses and
              releases the  mouse  in  a  short  period  of  time
              (ClickTime  milliseconds).   "D" stands for double-
              click.  The action "I" will cause an action  to  be
              performed  on  the button-press, if the function is
              invoked with prior knowledge of which window to act

              The special symbols $w and $0 through $9 are avail-
              able in the ComplexFunctions or Macros, or whatever
              you  want  to  call  them.   Within  a macro, $w is
              expanded to the window-id (expressed in  hex,  i.e.
              0x10023c)  of  the  window  for which the macro was
              called.  $0 though $9  are  the  arguments  to  the
              macro, so if you call

                   Key F10   R    A    Function MailFunction xmh "-font fixed"

              and MailFunction is

                   AddToFunc MailFunction     "I" Next [$0] Iconify -1
                   +                          "I" Next [$0] focus
                   +                          "I" None [$0] Exec $0 $1

              Then the last line of the function becomes

                   +                          "I" None [xmh] Exec xmh -font fixed

              The  expansion is performed as the function is exe-
              cuted, so you can use the same  function  with  all

                   Key F11   R    A    Function MailFunction zmail "-bg pink"

              in  the  same .fvwm2rc, if I wanted.  An example of
              using $w is:

                   AddToFunc PrintFunction         "I" Raise
                   +                               "I" Exec xdpr -id $w

              Note that $$ is expanded to $.

       Beep   As might be expected, the makes the terminal  beep.

       BorderStyle [state] [style] [ -- [!]flag ... ]
              Defines  a  border style for windows.  state can be
              either "Active" or "Inactive."  If state  is  omit-
              ted, then the style is set for both states.  If the
              style and flags are enclosed in  parentheses,  then
              multiple  state  definitions  can  be specified per

              style is a subset of  the  available  ButtonStyles,
              and  can only be TiledPixmap (uniform pixmaps which
              match the bevel colors work best with this).  If an
              "!"   is  prefixed  to  any  flag, flag behavior is
              negated.  If style is not specified, then  one  can
              change flags without resetting the style.

              The  "HiddenHandles"  flag  hides the corner handle
              dividing lines on windows with handles (this option
              has  no  effect for NoHandle windows).  By default,
              HiddenHandles is disabled.

              The "NoInset" flag supplements  HiddenHandles.   If
              given,  the  inner bevel around the window frame is
              not drawn.  If HiddenHandles is not specified, this
              flag has no effect.

              To  decorate the active and inactive window borders
              with a textured pixmap, one might specify:

                   BorderStyle Active TiledPixmap marble.xpm
                   BorderStyle Inactive TiledPixmap granite.xpm
                   BorderStyle Active -- HiddenHandles NoInset

                   BorderStyle Simple

              To clear for a single state:

                   BorderStyle Active Simple

              To unset a flag for a given state:

                   BorderStyle Inactive -- !NoInset

              Title-bar buttons can inherit the border style with
              the UseBorderStyle flag (see ButtonStyle).

       ButtonStyle button [state] [style] [ -- [!]flag ... ]
              Sets the button style for a title-bar button.  but-
              ton is the title-bar button number between 0 and 9,
              or one of "All," "Left," "Right," or "Reset."  But-
              ton numbering is described  in  the  Mouse  section
              (see  below).   If the style and flags are enclosed
              in parentheses, then multiple state definitions can
              be specified per line.

              state  refers  to which button state should be set.
              Button states are defined  as  follows:  "ActiveUp"
              and "ActiveDown" refer to the unpressed and pressed
              states for buttons on  active  windows;  while  the
              "Inactive"  state  denotes buttons on inactive win-

              If state is ActiveUp, ActiveDown, or Inactive, that
              particular  button state is set.  If state is omit-
              ted,  every  state  is  set.   Specifying  a  style
              destroys  the  current style (use AddButtonStyle to
              avoid this).

              If style is omitted, then state-dependent flags can
              be   set  for  the  primary  button  style  without
              destroying the current style.  Examples (each  line
              should be considered independent):

                   ButtonStyle Left -- flat
                   ButtonStyle All ActiveUp (-- flat) Inactive (-- flat)

              The first line sets every state of the left buttons
              to flat, while the second sets  only  the  ActiveUp
              and  Inactive  states of every button to flat (only
              flags are changed; the buttons'  individual  styles
              are not changed).

                   ButtonStyle Reset

              To reset the ActiveUp button state of button  1  to
              the default:

                   ButtonStyle 1 ActiveUp Default

              To  reset  all  button  states  of  button 1 to the
              default of button number 2:

                   ButtonStyle 1 Default 2

              For any given button,  multiple  state  definitions
              can be given on one line by enclosing the style and
              flags in parentheses.  If only one  definition  per
              line is given the parentheses can be omitted.

              flags  affect  the  specified  state.  If an "!" is
              prefixed to any flag, its behavior is negated.  The
              available  state-dependent flags for all styles are
              described here (the next  ButtonStyle  entry  deals
              with state-independent flags).

              "Raised"  causes  a  raised  relief  pattern  to be

              "Sunk" causes a sunken relief pattern to be  drawn.

              "Flat"  inhibits  the  relief  pattern  from  being

              "UseTitleStyle" causes the given  button  state  to
              render the current title style before rendering the
              button's own styles.  The Raised,  Flat,  and  Sunk
              TitleStyle  flags are ignored since they are redun-
              dant in this context.

              "UseBorderStyle" causes the button to  inherit  the
              decorated BorderStyle options.

              Raised,  Sunk, and Flat are mutually exclusive, and
              can be specified for the initial ButtonStyle  only.
              UseTitleStyle  and UseBorderStyle are also mutually
              exclusive (both can be off however).   The  default
              is  Raised  with  both  UseBorderStyle  and  UseTi-
              tleStyle left unset.

              There is  an  important  note  for  the  ActiveDown
              state.   When  a  button  is pressed, the relief is
              inverted.  Because of  this,  to  obtain  a  sunken
              look which is raised, specify Sunk for ActiveDown).
              This behavior is consistent, but may seem confusing
              at first.

              Button  styles  are  classified as non-destructive,
              partially destructive, or fully destructive.   Non-
              destructive  styles  do not affect the image.  Par-
              tially destructive styles can obscure some  or  all
              parts of the underlying image (i.e. Pixmap).  Fully
              destructive styles obscure  the  entire  underlying
              image  (i.e.  Solid or one of the gradient styles).
              Thus, if stacking styles  with  AddButtonStyle  (or
              AddTitleStyle for title bars), use care in sequenc-
              ing styles to minimize redraw.

              The available styles and their arguments now follow
              (depending  on  compilation  options,  some  button
              styles may be unavailable).

              The "Simple" style  does  nothing.   There  are  no
              arguments,  and  this style is an example of a non-
              destructive button style.

              The "Default" style conditionally accepts one argu-
              ment:  a  number which specifies the default button
              number to load.  If the style command given is But-
              tonStyle   or   AddButtonStyle,   the  argument  is
              optional (if given, will override the current  but-
              ton).   If  a  command  other  than  ButtonStyle or
              AddButtonStyle is used, the number must  be  speci-

              The  "Solid"  style  fills  the button with a solid
              color.  The relief border color  is  not  affected.
              The color should be specified as a single argument.
              This style is fully destructive.

              The "Vector" style draws  a  line  pattern.   Since
              this  is a standard button style, the keyword "Vec-
              tor" is optional.  The specification  is  a  little

                   ButtonStyle 2 Vector 4 50x30@1 70x70@0 30x70@0 50x30@1

              then  the  button  2  decoration will use a 4-point
              pattern consisting of a line  from  (x=50,y=30)  to
              (70,70)  in  the  shadow  color  (@0),  and then to
              (30,70) in the shadow color, and finally to (50,30)
              in  the  highlight color (@1).  Is that too confus-
              ing? See the sample .fvwm2rc for  a  few  examples.
              This style is partially destructive.

              horizontal and vertical directions.

              This style has two forms:

                The  first  form  specifies  a  linear  gradient.
                Arguments: total number  of  colors  to  allocate
                (between  2  and 128), the initial color, and the
                final color.

                The second form specifies a  nonlinear  gradient.
                Arguments:  total  number  of  colors to allocate
                (between 2 and 128), then the number of segments.
                For  each  segment,  specify  the starting color,
                percentage to increment, then ending color.  Each
                subsequent  segment  begins with the color of the
                last segment.  All of the percentages must add up
                to 100.


                   TitleStyle VGradient 16 3 Red 20 Blue 30 Black 50 Grey

              The gradient styles are fully destructive.

              The  "Pixmap"  style  displays  a pixmap.  A pixmap
              should be specified as an argument.   For  example,
              the  following  would give button 2 the same pixmap
              for both states, and button 4 different pixmaps for
              the up, down and inactive states.

                   ButtonStyle 2 Pixmap my_pixmap.xpm
                   ButtonStyle 4 ActiveUp (Pixmap up.xpm) ActiveDown (Pixmap down.xpm)
                   ButtonStyle 4 Inactive Pixmap inactive.xpm

              The  pixmap  specification can be given as an abso-
              lute or relative pathname (see PixmapPath).  If the
              pixmap cannot be found, the button style reverts to
              Simple.  Flags specific to  the  Pixmap  style  are
              "Left," "Right," "Top," and "Bottom."  These can be
              used to justify the pixmap (default is centered for
              both  directions).  Pixmap transparency is used for
              the color "None."  This style is partially destruc-

              The  "MiniIcon"  style draws the window's miniature
              icon in the button, which  is  specified  with  the
              MiniIcon  option  of the Style command. This button
              style accepts no arguments.  Example:

                   Style "*"          MiniIcon mini-bx2.xpm
                   Style "xterm"      MiniIcon mini-term.xpm
                   Style "Emacs"      MiniIcon mini-doc.xpm

              The "TiledPixmap" style  accepts  a  pixmap  to  be
              tiled  as  the  button  background.   One pixmap is
              specified as an argument.  Pixmap  transparency  is
              not used.  This style is fully destructive.

       ButtonStyle button - [!]flag ...
              Sets state-independent flags for the specified but-
              ton.  State-independent flags affect button  behav-
              ior.  Each flag is separated by a space.  If an "!"
              is prefixed to the flag then the flag  behavior  is
              negated.   The  special  flag  "Clear"  clears  any
              existing flags.

              The following flags are usually used to  tell  fvwm
              which  buttons  should  be affected by MWM function
              hints.  This is not done  automatically  since  you
              might  have buttons bound to complex functions, for

              "MWMDecorMenu" should be assigned to title bar but-
              tons  which display a menu.  The default assignment
              is the leftmost button.  When  a  window  with  the
              MWMFunctions Style option requests not to show this
              button, it will be hidden.

              "MWMDecorMin" should be assigned to title bar  but-
              tons  which  minimize  or  iconify the window.  The
              default assignment is the second button  over  from
              the  rightmost button.  When a window with the MWM-
              Functions Style option requests not  to  show  this
              button, it will be hidden.

              "MWMDecorMax"  should be assigned to title bar but-
              tons  which  maximize  the  window.   The   default
              assignment  is the rightmost button.  When a window
              with the MWMFunctions Style option requests not  to
              show this button, it will be hidden.

       ChangeDecor decor
              Changes  the  decor of a window to decor.  decor is
              "Default," or the name  of  a  decor  defined  with
              AddToDecor.   If  decor is invalid, nothing occurs.
              If called from somewhere in a window or its border,
              then  that  window is affected.  If called from the
              root window the user will be allowed to select  the
              target window.  ChangeDecor only affects attributes

                        ChangeDecor "CustomDecor1"

       ClickTime delay
              Specifies  the  maximum  delay  (in   milliseconds)
              between a button press and a button release for the
              Function built-in to consider the  action  a  mouse
              click.  The default delay is 150 milliseconds.

       Close  If  the window accepts the delete window protocol a
              message is sent to the window asking it  to  grace-
              fully remove itself.  If the window does not under-
              stand the delete window protocol then the window is

       ColormapFocus [FollowsMouse | FollowsFocus]
              By  default, fvwm installs the colormap of the win-
              dow that the cursor is in.  If you use  ColormapFo-
              cus  FollowsFocus, then the installed colormap will
              be the one for the window that  currently  has  the
              keyboard focus.

       Current [conditions] command
              Performs command on the current window if it satis-
              fies all conditions.  Conditions include  "Iconic",
              "!Iconic",    "Visible",    "!Visible",   "Sticky",
              "!Sticky", "Maximized", "!Maximized",  "Transient",
              "!Transient",  "Raised",  "!Raised", "CurrentDesk",
              "CurrentPage", and "CurrentPageAnyDesk".  In  addi-
              tion,  the  condition  may include a window name to
              match to.  The window name may  include  the  wild-
              cards  * and ?.  The window name, icon name, class,
              and resource will be considered when attempting  to
              find  a  match.   The  window name can begin with !
              which will prevent command if  any  of  the  window
              name, icon name, class or resource match.

       CursorMove horizontal vertical
              Moves  the mouse pointer by horizontal pages in the
              X direction and vertical pages in the Y  direction.
              Either or both entries may be negative.  Both hori-
              down and right by one full  page.   "CursorMove  50
              25"  means  to  move  right  half a page and down a
              quarter of a page.  Alternatively, the distance can
              be  specified  in  pixels by appending a 'p' to the
              horizontal  and/or  vertical  specification.    For
              example  "CursorMove -10p -10p" means move ten pix-
              els up and ten pixels left.  The  CursorMove  func-
              tion should not be called from pop-up menus.

       CursorStyle context cursornum
              Defines  a  new  cursor  for the specified context.
              The various contexts are:

                   POSITION     - used when initially placing windows (XC_top_left_corner)
                   TITLE        - used in a window title-bar (XC_top_left_arrow)
                   DEFAULT      - used in windows that don't set their cursor (XC_top_left_arrow)
                   SYS          - used in one of the title-bar buttons (XC_hand2)
                   MOVE         - used when moving or resizing windows (XC_fleur)
                   WAIT         - used during an EXEC builtin command (XC_watch)
                   MENU         - used in menus (XC_sb_left_arrow)
                   SELECT       - used for various builtin commands such as iconify (XC_dot)
                   DESTROY      - used for DESTROY, CLOSE, and DELETE built-ins (XC_pirate)
                   TOP          - used in the top side-bar of a window (XC_top_side)
                   RIGHT        - used in the right side-bar of a window (XC_right_side)
                   BOTTOM       - used in the bottom side-bar of a window (XC_bottom_side)
                   LEFT         - used in the left side-bar of a window (XC_left_side)
                   TOP_LEFT     - used in the top left corner of a window (XC_top_left_corner)
                   TOP_RIGHT    - used in the top right corner of a window (XC_top_right_corner)
                   BOTTOM_LEFT  - used in the bottom left corner of a window (XC_bottom_left_corner)
                   BOTTOM_RIGHT - used in the bottom right corner of a window (XC_bottom_right_corner)

              And the cursornum is the numeric value of the  cur-
              sor  as  defined  in  the  include file X11/cursor-
              font.h.  An example:

                           # make the kill cursor be XC_gumby:
                           CursorStyle DESTROY 56

              The defaults are shown in parenthesis above.

       Delete Sends a message to a window asking that  it  remove
              itself, frequently causing the application to exit.

       Desk arg1 arg2
              Changes to another desktop (workspace, room).

              If arg1 is non zero then the  next  desktop  number

              If arg1 is zero then the new desktop number will be

              The number of active desktops is determined dynami-
              cally.  Only desktops which contain windows or  are
              currently being displayed are active.  Desktop num-
              bers must be between 2147483647 and -2147483648 (is
              that enough?).

       DeskTopSize HorizontalxVertical
              Defines  the  virtual  desktop size in units of the
              physical screen size.

              Destroys  an  application  window,  which   usually
              causes the application to crash and burn.

              Deletes  a  function, so that subsequent references
              to it are no longer valid.  You  can  use  this  to
              change  the  contents  of a function during an fvwm
              session.  The function can be rebuilt using  AddTo-

                        DestroyFunc "PrintFunction"

       DestroyDecor decor
              Deletes  the decor defined with AddToDecor, so that
              subsequent references to it are  no  longer  valid.
              Windows using this decor revert to the default fvwm
              decor.   The  decor  named  "Default"   cannot   be

                        DestroyDecor "CustomDecor1"

              Deletes a menu, so that subsequent references to it
              are no longer valid.  You can use  this  to  change
              the contents of a menu during an fvwm session.  The

                        DestroyMenu "Utilities"

              Deletes module configuration entries, so  that  new
              configuration  lines  may  be entered instead.  You
              can use this to change the the way  a  module  runs
              during  an  fvwm session without restarting.  Wild-
              cards can be used for portions of the name as well.

                        DestroyModuleConfig FvwmFormFore
                        DestroyModuleConfig FvwmButtons*

       Echo string
              Prints a message to stderr.  Potentially useful for
              debugging things in your .fvwm2rc.

                           Echo Beginning style defs...

       EdgeResistance scrolling moving
              Tells how hard it should be to change  the  desktop
              viewport  by  moving the mouse over the edge of the
              screen and how hard it should be to move  a  window
              over the edge of the screen.

              The  first  parameter  tells  how  milliseconds the
              pointer must spend on the screen edge  before  fvwm
              will  move the viewport.  This is intended for peo-
              ple who use "EdgeScroll 100  100"  but  find  them-
              selves  accidentally flipping pages when they don't
              want to.

              The second parameter tells how many pixels over the
              edge of the screen a window's edge must move before
              it actually moves partially off the screen.

              Note that, with "EdgeScroll 0 0", it is still  pos-
              sible  to move or resize windows across the edge of
              the current screen.  By making the first  parameter
              to  EdgeResistance  10000  this  type  of motion is
              impossible.  With EdgeResistance  less  than  10000
              but greater than 0 moving over pages becomes diffi-
              cult but not impossible.
              Specifies the percentage of a page to  scroll  when
              the  cursor  hits the edge of a page.  If you don't
              want any paging or scrolling when you hit the  edge
              of a page include "EdgeScroll 0 0" in your .fvwm2rc
              file.  If you want whole pages, use "EdgeScroll 100
              100".  Both horizontal and vertical should be posi-
              tive numbers.

              If the horizontal and vertical percentages are mul-
              tiplied  by 1000 then scrolling will wrap around at
              the edge of the  desktop.   If  "EdgeScroll  100000
              100000"  is  used  fvwm will scroll by whole pages,
              wrapping around at the edge of the desktop.

       Exec command
              Executes command.  Exec does not require  an  addi-
              tional 'exec' at the beginning or '&' at the end of
              the command.

              The following example binds function key F1 in  the
              root  window,  with no modifiers, to the exec func-
              tion.  The program rxvt will  be  started  with  an
              assortment of options.

                   Key F1 R N Exec rxvt -fg yellow -bg blue -e /bin/tcsh

       ExecUseShell [shell]
              Makes  the Exec command use the specified shell, or
              the value of the $SHELL environment variable if  no
              shell  is  specified, instead of the default Bourne
              shell (/bin/sh).

                   ExecUseShell /usr/local/bin/tcsh

              Toggles focus between the last two focused windows.

       Focus  Moves  the viewport or window as needed to make the
              selected window visible.  Sets the  keyboard  focus
              to  the  selected  window.   Raises  the  window if
              needed to make  it  visible.   Does  not  warp  the

       Function FunctionName
              Used to bind a previously defined function to a key
              or mouse button.

              The  following  example  binds  mouse button 1 to a
              function called "Move-or-Raise",  whose  definition
              was  provided  as  an  example  earlier in this man
              page.  After performing this binding fvwm will exe-
              cute to move-or-raise function whenever button 1 is
              pressed in a window title-bar.

                   Mouse 1 T A Function Move-or-Raise

              The keyword "Function" may be omitted if "Function-
              Name" does not coincide with an fvwm built-in func-
              tion name

       GlobalOpts [options]
              This is a TEMPORARY command used to set some global
              options  which will later be handled as Style parms
              (or options to Style parms).  It currently  handles
              the  following:  SmartPlacementIsReallySmart/Smart-
              PlacementIsNormal,          ClickToFocusDoesntPass-
              Click/ClickToFocusPassesClick,    ClickToFocusDoes-
              ntRaise/ClickToFocusRaises,    MouseFocusClickDoes-

                   GlobalOpts ClickToFocusDoesntPassClick, ClickToFocusDoesntRaise

       GotoPage  x y
              Moves  the  desktop  viewport  to  page (x,y).  The
              upper left page is (0,0), the upper right is (M,0),
              where M is one less than the current number of hor-
              izontal pages specified in the DeskTopSize command.
              The  lower  left page is (0,N), and the lower right
              page is (M,N), where N is  the  desktop's  vertical
              size  as specified in the DeskTopSize command.  The
              GotoPage function should not be used  in  a  pop-up

       HilightColor textcolor backgroundcolor
              Specified  the  text  and background colors for the
              decorations on the window which currently  has  the
              Makes  fvwm  use font fontname for icon labels.  If
              omitted, the menu font (specified by the Font  con-
              figuration parameter) will be used instead.

       Iconify [ value ]
              Iconifies  a  window if it is not already iconified
              or de-iconifies it if it is already iconified.   If
              the  optional  argument  value is positive the only
              iconification will be  allowed.   It  the  optional
              argument  is negative only de-iconification will be

       IconPath path
              Specifies a colon separated list of full path names
              of  directories where bitmap (monochrome) icons can
              be found.  Each path should  start  with  a  slash.
              Environment  variables  can  be  used  here as well
              (i.e.  $HOME or ${HOME}).

              Note: if the FvwmM4 is used to parse your rc files,
              then m4 may want to mangle the word "include" which
              will frequently show up in the IconPath or  Pixmap-
              Path  command.  To fix this add undefine(`include')
              prior to the IconPath command, or  better  use  the
              '-m4-prefix'  option  to force all m4 directives to
              have a prefix of "m4_" (see the FvwmM4 man page).

       Key keyname Context Modifiers Function
              Binds a keyboard key to a specified  fvwm  built-in
              function,  or  removes  the  binding if Function is
              '-'.  Definition is the same as for a mouse binding
              except  that  the  mouse  button number is replaced
              with a key name.  The keyname is one of the entries
              from /usr/include/X11/keysymdef.h, with the leading
              XK_ omitted.  The Context and Modifiers fields  are
              defined as in the Mouse binding.

              The  following  example  binds  the built in window
              list to pop up when Alt-Ctrl-Shift-F11 is  hit,  no
              matter where the mouse pointer is:

                   Key F11  A  SCM  WindowList

              Binding  a key to a title-bar button will not cause
              that button to appear unless a mouse  binding  also
              Causes  the module which was invoked with name name
              to be killed.  name may include wild-cards.

       Lower  Allows the user to lower a window.

       Maximize [  horizontal vertical ]
              Without its optional arguments Maximize causes  the
              window  to  alternately  switch  from a full-screen
              size to its normal size.

              With the optional arguments horizontal  and  verti-
              cal,  which  are  expressed as percentage of a full
              screen, the user can control the new  size  of  the
              window.   If  horizontal is greater than 0 then the
              horizontal dimension of the window will be  set  to
              horizontal*screen_width/100.  The vertical resizing
              is similar.  For example, the following will add  a
              title-bar  button  to  switch  a window to the full
              vertical size of the screen:

                   Mouse 0 4 A Maximize 0 100

              The following causes windows to be stretched to the
              full width:

                   Mouse 0 4 A Maximize 100 0

              This makes a window that is half the screen size in
              each direction:

                   Mouse 0 4 A Maximize 50 50

              Values larger than 100 can be used with caution.

              If the letter "p" is appended  to  each  coordinate
              (horizontal   and/or  vertical),  then  the  scroll
              amount will be measured in pixels.

       Menu menu-name double-click-action
              Causes a previously defined menu to be popped up in
              a  "sticky"  manner.   That is, if the user invokes
              the menu with a click  action  instead  of  a  drag
              action, the menu will stay up.  The command double-
              click-action will be invoked if  the  user  double-
              clicks when bringing the menu up.

              Sets  the  menu  style.   When using monochrome the
              colors are ignored.  The  shade-color  is  the  one
              used  to  draw a menu-selection which is prohibited
              (or not recommended)  by  the  mwm-hints  which  an
              application  has  specified.   The  style option is
              either "fvwm" or "mwm", which changes  the  appear-
              ance of the menu.

       Module ModuleName
              Specifies  a  module which should be spawned during
              initialization.  At the current time the  available
              modules  (included  with fvwm) are FvwmAudio (makes
              sounds to go with window manager actions), FvwmAuto
              (an  auto  raise module), FvwmBacker (to change the
              background when you  change  desktops),  FvwmBanner
              (to display a spiffy XPM), FvwmButtons (brings up a
              customizable tool bar), FvwmCpp (to preprocess your
              .fvwm2rc with cpp), FvwmForm (to bring up dialogs),
              FvwmIconBox (like  the  mwm  IconBox),  FvwmIconMan
              (like the twm icon manager), FvwmIdent (to get win-
              dow info), FvwmM4 (to preprocess your .fvwm2rc with
              m4),  FvwmPager  (a  mini  version of the desktop),
              FvwmSave  (saves  the  desktop  state  in  .xinitrc
              style),  FvwmSaveDesk  (saves  the desktop state in
              fvwm commands), FvwmScroll (puts scrollbars on  any
              window),  FvwmTalk  (to interactively run fvwm com-
              mands), and FvwmWinList  (a  window  list).   These
              modules  have their own man pages.  There are other
              modules out on there as well.

              Modules can be short lived transient  programs  or,
              like  FvwmButtons,  can  remain for the duration of
              the X session.  Modules will be terminated  by  the
              window manager prior to restarts and quits, if pos-
              sible.  See the introductory  section  on  modules.
              The  keyword  "module" may be omitted if ModuleName
              is distinct from all built-in and function names.

              Specifies a colon separated list of paths for  fvwm
              to search when looking for a module to load.  Indi-
              vidual directories do not  need  trailing  slashes.
              Environment  variables  can  be  used  here as well
              (i.e.  $HOME or ${HOME}).

       Mouse Button Context Modifiers Function
              ber.  If Button is zero then any button  will  per-
              form  the  specified  function.   Context describes
              where the binding applies.  Valid  contexts  are  R
              for the root window, W for an application window, T
              for a window title bar, S for a window  side,  top,
              or  bottom bar, F for a window frame (the corners),
              I for an Icon window, or 0 through 9 for  title-bar
              buttons, or any combination of these letters.  A is
              for any context except for title-bar buttons.   For
              instance,  a  context  of  FST  will apply when the
              mouse is anywhere in a window's border  except  the
              title-bar buttons.

              Modifiers is any combination of N for no modifiers,
              C for control, S for shift, M for Meta,  or  A  for
              any  modifier.   For example, a modifier of SM will
              apply when both the Meta and Shift keys  are  down.
              X11  modifiers mod1 through mod5 are represented as
              the digits 1 through 5.

              Function is one of fvwm's built-in functions.

              The title bar buttons are numbered  with  odd  num-
              bered buttons on the left side of the title bar and
              even numbers on the right.   Smaller-numbered  but-
              tons are displayed toward the outside of the window
              while larger-numbered  buttons  appear  toward  the
              middle  of the window (0 is short for 10).  In sum-
              mary, the buttons are numbered:

                   1 3 5 7 9    0 8 6 4 2

              The highest odd numbered button which has an action
              bound  to it determines the number of buttons drawn
              on the left side of the  title  bar.   The  highest
              even  number  determines  the  number or right side
              buttons which are drawn.  Actions can be  bound  to
              either mouse buttons or keyboard keys.

       Move [ x y ]
              Allows  the  user to move a window.  If called from
              somewhere in a window or its border, then that win-
              dow  will be moved.  If called from the root window
              then the user will be allowed to select the  target

              If  the  optional  arguments  x and y are provided,
              then the window will be moved  so  that  its  upper
              left  corner  is at location (x,y).  The units of x
              and y are percent-of-screen, unless a letter "p" is


                   Mouse 1 T A Move
                   Mouse 2 T A Move 10 10
                   Mouse 3 T A Move 10p 10p

              In the first example, an interactive move is  indi-
              cated.   In  the second, the window whose title-bar
              is selected will be moved so that  its  upper  left
              hand  corner  is  10 percent of the screen width in
              from the left of the screen, and  10  percent  down
              from  the  top.  The final example moves the window
              to coordinate (10,10) pixels.

       Nop    Does nothing.  This is used to insert a blank  line
              or  separator in a menu.  If the menu item specifi-
              cation is Nop " ", then a blank line  is  inserted.
              If  it  looks like Nop "", then a separator line is
              inserted.  Can also be  used  as  the  double-click
              action for Menu.

       Next [conditions] command
              Performs command (typically Focus) on the next win-
              dow which satisfies all conditions.  Conditions are
              the same as for Current with the addition of Circu-
              lateHit which  overrides  the  CirculateSkip  style
              attribute  and CirculateHitIcon which overrides the
              CirculateSkipIcon  style  attribute  for  iconified

       None [arguments] command
              Performs  command  if no window which satisfies all
              conditions exists.  Conditions are the same as  for

       OpaqueMoveSize percentage
              Tells  fvwm  the  maximum  size  window  with which
              opaque window movement should be  used.   The  per-
              centage  is percent of the total screen area.  With
              "OpaqueMoveSize 0" all windows will be moved  using
              the traditional rubber-band outline.  With "Opaque-
              MoveSize 100" all windows will  be  move  as  solid
              windows.   The default is "OpaqueMoveSize 5", which

       PipeRead cmd
              Causes fvwm to read commands output from  the  pro-
              gram  named  cmd.   Useful  for building up dynamic
              menu entries based on a directories  contents,  for

       PixmapPath path
              Specifies a colon separated list of full path names
              of directories where pixmap (color)  icons  can  be
              found.  Each path should start with a slash.  Envi-
              ronment variables can be used here  as  well  (i.e.
              $HOME or ${HOME}).

       Popup PopupName
              This built-in has two purposes: to bind a menu to a
              key or mouse button, and to bind a sub-menu into  a
              menu.   The  formats  for  the  two purposes differ

              To bind a previously defined pop-up menu to  a  key
              or mouse button:

                The following example binds mouse buttons 2 and 3
                to a pop-up called "Window Ops".  The  menu  will
                pop  up  if the buttons 2 or 3 are pressed in the
                window frame, side-bar,  or  title-bar,  with  no
                modifiers (none of shift, control, or meta).

                     Mouse 2 FST N Popup "Window Ops"
                     Mouse 3 FST N Popup "Window Ops"

                Pop-ups  can  be bound to keys through the use of
                the Key built in.  Pop-ups can be operated  with-
                out  using the mouse by binding to keys and oper-
                ating via the up arrow,  down  arrow,  and  enter

              To bind a previously defined pop-up menu to another
              menu, for use as a sub-menu:

                The following example defines a sub menu,  "Quit-
                Verify"  and  binds  it  into a main menu, called

                     AddToMenu Quit-Verify   "Really Quit Fvwm?" Title
                     +                       "Yes, Really Quit"  Quit
                     +                       "Restart Fvwm2"     Restart fvwm2
                     +                       "Restart Fvwm 1.xx" Restart fvwm
                     +                       ""                  Nop
                     +                       "No, Don't Quit"    Nop

                     AddToMenu RootMenu      "Root Menu"         Title
                     + "Open an XTerm Window"  Popup NewWindowMenu
                     + "Login as Root"         Exec xterm -fg green -T Root -n Root -e su -
                     + "Login as Anyone"       Popup AnyoneMenu
                     + "Remote Hosts"          Popup HostMenu
                     + ""                      Nop
                     + "X utilities"           Popup Xutils
                     + ""                      Nop
                     + "Fvwm Modules"          Popup Module-Popup
                     + "Fvwm Window Ops"       Popup Window-Ops
                     + ""                      Nop
                     + "Previous Focus"        Prev [*] Focus
                     + "Next Focus"            Next [*] Focus
                     + ""                      Nop
                     + "Refresh screen"        Refresh
                     + "Recapture screen"      Recapture
                     + ""                      Nop
                     + "Reset X defaults"      Exec xrdb -load $HOME/.Xdefaults
                     + ""                      Nop
                     + ""                      Nop
                     + "Quit"                  Popup Quit-Verify

              Popup differs from Menu in that pop-ups do not stay
              up  if the user simply clicks.  These are Twm style
              popup-menus, which are a little hard on the  wrist.
              Menu  provides  Motif  or  Microsoft-Windows  style
              menus which will stay up on a click action.

       Prev   Performs command (typically Focus) on the  previous
              window  which satisfies all conditions.  Conditions
              are the same as for Next.

       Quit   Exits fvwm, generally causing X to exit too.

       Raise  Allows the user to raise a window.

              Alternately raises and lowers a window.

       Read filename
              Causes fvwm to read commands from  the  file  named

              Causes  fvwm to recapture all of its windows.  This
              ensures that the latest style  parameters  will  be
              used.  The recapture operation is visually disturb-

              Causes all windows on the screen  to  redraw  them-

              Causes current (or chosen) window to redraw itself.

       Resize [ x y ]
              Allows the user to resize a window.

              If the optional arguments x  and  y  are  provided,
              then  the window will be resized so that its dimen-
              sions are x by y).  The units of x and y  are  per-
              cent-of-screen,  unless a letter "p" is appended to
              each coordinate, in  which  case  the  location  is
              specified in pixels.

       Restart  WindowManagerName
              Causes  fvwm to restart itself if WindowManagerName
              is "fvwm2", or to switch  to  an  alternate  window
              manager if WindowManagerName is other than "fvwm2".
              If the window manager is not in your default search
              path,  then  you  should use the full path name for

              This command should not have a  trailing  ampersand
              or  any  command line arguments and should not make
              use of any environmental variables.  Of the follow-

                   Key F1 R N Restart fvwm &
                   Key F1 R N Restart $(HOME)/bin/fvwm
                   Key F1 R N Restart /home/nation/bin/fvwm

       SendToModule modulename string
              Sends an arbitrary string (no quotes  required)  to
              all  modules matching modulename, which may contain
              wildcards.  This only makes sense if the module  is
              set  up  to  understand and deal with these strings
              though...  Can be used for module to module  commu-
              nication,  or  implementation  of more complex com-
              mands in modules.

       Scroll horizonal vertical
              Scrolls the virtual desktop's viewport by  horizon-
              tal  pages in the x-direction and vertical pages in
              the y-direction.  Either or  both  entries  may  be
              negative.   Both horizontal and vertical values are
              expressed in percent of pages, so "Scroll 100  100"
              means  to  scroll  down  and left by one full page.
              "Scroll 50 25" means to scroll left half a page and
              down  a  quarter  of  a  page.  The scroll function
              should not be called from pop-up  menus.  Normally,
              scrolling stops at the edge of the desktop.

              If the horizontal and vertical percentages are mul-
              tiplied by 1000 then scrolling will wrap around  at
              the  edge  of the desktop.  If "Scroll 100000 0" is
              executed over and over fvwm will move to  the  next
              desktop page on each execution and will wrap around
              at the edge of the desktop, so that every  page  is
              hit in turn.

              If  the  letter  "p" is appended to each coordinate
              (horizontal  and/or  vertical),  then  the   scroll
              amount will be measured in pixels.

       Stick  Makes  a window sticky if it is not already sticky,
              or non-sticky if it is already sticky.

       Style windowname options
              This command is intended to replace  the  old  fvwm
              1.xx  global  commands NoBorder, NoTitle, StartsOn-
              NoBoundaryWidth,  StdForeColor,  and   StdBackColor
              with  a single flexible and comprehensive window(s)
              specific command.  This  command  is  used  to  set
              attributes  of  a  window  to values other than the
              default  or  to  set  the  window  manager  default

              windowname  can  be  a  window's  name,  class,  or
              resource string.  It can contain  the  wildcards  *
              and/or ?, which are matched in the usual Unix file-
              name manner.  They  are  searched  in  the  reverse
              order  stated,  so that Style commands based on the
              name override or augment those based on the  class,
              which  override  or  augment  those  based  on  the
              resource string.

              Note - windows that  have  no  name  (WM_NAME)  are
              given  a name of "Untitled", and windows that don't
              have a class (WM_CLASS, res_class) are given  Class
              =  "NoClass"  and  those that don't have a resource
              (WM_CLASS, res_name) are given  Resource  =  "NoRe-

              options  is  a comma separated list containing some
              or all of the  keywords  BorderWidth,  HandleWidth,
              NoIcon/Icon,   MiniIcon,   IconBox,  NoTitle/Title,
              NoHandles/Handles,    WindowListSkip/WindowListHit,
              CirculateSkip/CirculateHit,    StaysOnTop/StaysPut,
              Sticky/Slippery,  StartIconic/StartNormal,   Color,
              ForeColor,  BackColor, StartsOnDesk/StartsAnyWhere,
              IconTitle/NoIconTitle, MWMButtons/FvwmButtons, MWM-
              Border/FvwmBorder,  MWMDecor/NoDecorHint,  MWMFunc-
              tions/NoFuncHint,  HintOverride/NoOverride,  NoBut-
              ton/Button, OLDecor/NoOLDecor, StickyIcon/Slippery-
              Icon,  SmartPlacement/DumbPlacement,   RandomPlace-
              ment/ActivePlacement,  DecorateTransient/NakedTran-
              sient, SkipMapping/ShowMapping, UseDecor, UseStyle,
              NoPPosition/UsePPosition,      Lenience/NoLenience,

              In the above list some options are listed as style-
              option/opposite-style-option.  The  opposite-style-
              option  for  entries  that  have them describes the
              fvwm default behavior and can be used if  you  want
              to change the fvwm default behavior.

              Icon  takes  an (optional) unquoted string argument
              which is the icon bitmap or pixmap to use.

                   IconBox   l t r b

              Where l is the left coordinate, t is the top, r  is
              right  and  b is bottom. Negative coordinates indi-
              cate distance from  the  right  or  bottom  of  the
              screen.  The iconbox is a region of the screen will
              fvwm will attempt to put icons for this window,  as
              long as they do not overlap other icons.

              MiniIcon specifies a pixmap to use as the miniature
              icon for the window.  This miniature  icon  can  be
              drawn  in a title-bar button (see ButtonStyle), and
              can be used by various fvwm  modules  (FvwmWinList,
              FvwmIconMan, and FvwmTaskBar). It takes the name of
              a pixmap as an argument.

              StartsOnDesk takes a numeric argument which is  the
              desktop  number  on which the window should be ini-
              tially placed.  Note that standard Xt programs  can
              also  specify  this  via  a  resource  (e.g.  "-xrm
              '*Desk: 1'").

              StaysOnTop makes the window always try to  stay  on
              top  of the other windows.  This might be handy for
              clocks or mailboxes that you would always  like  to
              be visible.  If the window is explicitly lowered it
              will not try to force its way back to the top until
              it  is  explicitly  raised.  StaysPut (the default)
              allows the window to be obscured and stay that way.

              BorderWidth  takes  a numeric argument which is the
              width of the border to place the window if it  does
              not have resize-handles.

              HandleWidth  takes  a numeric argument which is the
              width of the border to place the window if it  does
              have resize-handles.

              Button  and  NoButton take a numeric argument which
              is the number of the title-bar button which  is  to
              be included/omitted.

              StickyIcon  makes the window sticky when its iconi-
              fied.  It will deiconify on top the active desktop.

              MWMButtons  makes the Maximize button look pressed-
              in when the window is maximized.  See the MWMButton
              flag in ButtonStyle for more information.

              MWMBorder  makes  the  3-D bevel more closely match
              respect  the mwm decoration hints that applications
              occasionally use.

              MWMFunctions makes fvwm attempt  to  recognize  and
              respect  the  mwm  prohibited operations hints that
              applications occasionally use.  HintOverride  makes
              fvwm  shade out operations that mwm would prohibit,
              but it lets you perform the operation anyway.

              OLDecor makes fvwm attempt to recognize and respect
              the  olwm and olvwm hints that many older XView and
              OLIT applications use.

              Color takes two arguments.  The first is  the  win-
              dow-label  text  color and the second is the window
              decoration's normal background color.  The two col-
              ors  are  separated  with a slash.  If the use of a
              slash causes problems then the  separate  ForeColor
              and BackColor options can be used.

              UseDecor  accepts one argument: the name of a decor
              created with AddToDecor.  If UseDecor is not speci-
              fied,  the "Default" decor is used.  Windows do not
              actually contain decors, but are always assigned to
              one.    If   the   decor  is  later  modified  with
              AddToDecor, the changes will  be  visible  for  all
              windows  which are assigned to it.  The decor for a
              window can be reassigned with ChangeDecor.

              UseStyle takes  one  arg,  which  is  the  name  of
              another  style.   That  way  you can have unrelated
              window names easily inherit similar traits  without
              retyping.   For  example:  'Style  "rxvt"  UseStyle

              SkipMapping tells fvwm not to switch  to  the  desk
              the  window  is  on  when  it gets mapped initially
              (useful with StartsOnDesk).

              Lenience instructs fvwm to ignore the convention in
              the  ICCCM which states that if an application sets
              the input field of the wm_hints structure to False,
              then  it  never wants the window manager to give it
              the input focus.  The only application that I  know
              of  which  needs  this is sxpm, and that is a silly
              bug with a trivial fix and has no overall effect on
              the  program  anyway.   Rumor  is  that  some older
              applications have problems too.

              ClickToFocus instructs fvwm to give  the  focus  to
              the  window  when  it  is  clicked in.  The default
              MouseFocus (or its alias  FocusFollowsMouse)  tells
              the pointer leaves the window.  SloppyFocus is sim-
              ilar, but doesn't give up the focus if the  pointer
              leaves the window to pass over the root window or a
              ClickToFocus window (unless you click on  it,  that
              is),  which makes it possible to move the mouse out
              of the way without losing focus.

              NoPPosition instructs fvwm to ignore the  PPosition
              field  when  adding  new windows.  Adherence to the
              PPosition field is required for some  applications,
              but  if  you  don't  have  one  of those its a real

              RandomPlacement causes windows which would normally
              require  user  placement to be automatically placed
              in ever-so-slightly random locations.  For the best
              of all possible worlds use both RandomPlacement and

              SmartPlacement causes windows which would  normally
              require  user  placement to be automatically placed
              in a smart location - a location in which  they  do
              not overlap any other windows on the screen.  If no
              such position can be found user placement or random
              placement  (if  specified)  will be used as a fall-
              back method.  For the best of all  possible  worlds
              use both RandomPlacement and SmartPlacement.

              An example:

                   # Change default fvwm behavior to no title-bars on windows!
                   # Also define a default icon.
                   Style "*" NoTitle,Icon unknown1.xpm, BorderWidth 4,HandleWidth 5

                   # now, window specific changes:
                   Style "Fvwm*"     NoHandles,Sticky,WindowListSkip,BorderWidth 0
                   Style "Fvwm Pager"                 StaysOnTop, BorderWidth 0
                   Style "*lock"     NoHandles,Sticky,StaysOnTop,WindowListSkip
                   Style "xbiff"               Sticky,           WindowListSkip
                   Style "FvwmButtons" NoHandles,Sticky,WindowListSkip
                   Style "sxpm"      NoHandles
                   Style "makerkit"

                   # Put title-bars back on xterms only!
                   Style "xterm"     Title, Color black/grey

                   Style "rxvt"      Icon term.xpm
                   Style "xterm"     Icon rterm.xpm
                   Style "xcalc"     Icon xcalc.xpm
                   Style "xbiff"     Icon mail1.xpm
                   Style "xmh"       Icon mail1.xpm, StartsOnDesk 2
                   Style "xman"      Icon xman.xpm
                   Style "xgraph"    Icon graphs.xpm
                   Style "FvwmButtons" Icon toolbox.xpm

                   Style "Maker"     StartsOnDesk 1
                   Style "signal"    StartsOnDesk 3

              Note that all properties for a window will be OR'ed
              together.  In the above  example  "FvwmPager"  gets
              the  property  StaysOnTop  via an exact window name
              match but also gets  NoHandles,  Sticky,  and  Win-
              dowListSkip  by  a  match  to "Fvwm*".  It will get
              NoTitle by virtue of a match to "*".  If  conflict-
              ing  styles  are  specified  for a window, then the
              last style specified will be used.

              If the NoIcon attribute is set then  the  specified
              window  will simply disappear when it is iconified.
              The window can be  recovered  through  the  window-
              list.   If Icon is set without an argument then the
              NoIcon attribute is cleared but no icon  is  speci-
              fied.   An  example which allows only the FvwmPager
              module icon to exist:

                   Style "*" NoIcon
                   Style "Fvwm Pager" Icon

       Title  Does nothing.  This is used to insert a title  line
              in a popup or menu.

       TitleStyle [justification] [height num]
              Sets  attributes for the title bar.  Justifications
              can be "Centered", "RightJustified," or "LeftJusti-
              fied."   height  sets  the title bar's height to an
              amount in pixels.  Defaults are Centered  and  Win-
              dowFont  height.   The height parameter must be set
              after a WindowFont command since WindowFont  resets
              the  height  to the default for the specified font.

                   TitleStyle LeftJustified Height 24

       TitleStyle [state] [style] [ -- [!]flag ... ]
              Sets the style for the title bar.  state can be one
              of  "ActiveUp,"  "ActiveDown,"  or  "Inactive."  If
              and flags, then multiple state definitions  can  be
              given per line.  style can be omitted so that flags
              can be set while not destroying the current  style.

              If  an "!" is prefixed to any flag, its behavior is
              negated.   Valid  flags  for  each  state   include
              "Raised,"  "Flat,"  and  "Sunk" (these are mutually
              exclusive).  The default is Raised.  See  the  note
              in  ButtonStyle  regarding  the  ActiveDown  state.

                   TitleStyle ActiveUp HGradient 16 navy black
                   TitleStyle ActiveDown (Solid red -- flat) Inactive (TiledPixmap wood.xpm)
                   TitleStyle ActiveUp (-- Flat) ActiveDown (-- Raised) Inactive (-- Flat)

              This sets the ActiveUp state to a horizontal gradi-
              ent,  the  ActiveDown  state  to solid red, and the
              Inactive state to a tiled  wood  pixmap.   Finally,
              ActiveUp  is set to look flat, while ActiveDown set
              to be sunk (the  Raised  flag  for  the  ActiveDown
              state causes it to appear Sunk due to relief inver-
              sion), and Inactive is set to  flat  as  well.   An
              example which sets flags for all states:

                   TitleStyle -- flat

              For a flattened look:

                   TitleStyle -- flat
                   ButtonStyle All ActiveUp (-- flat) Inactive (-- flat)

       UpdateDecor decor
              Updates  window  decorations.  decor is an optional
              argument which specifies the decor to  update.   If
              given, only windows which are assigned to that par-
              ticular decor will be  updated.   This  command  is
              useful,   for   instance,   after   a  ButtonStyle,
              TitleStyle or BorderStyle (possibly  used  in  con-
              junction  with  AddToDecor).  Specifying an invalid
              decor results in all windows being  updated.   This
              command is less disturbing than Recapture, but does
              not affect window style options as Recapture  does.

       WarpToWindow x y
              Warps  the  cursor  to  the associated window.  The
              parameters x and y default to percentage of  window
              down  and  in  from  the upper left hand corner (or

       Wait name
              This  built-in is intended to be used in fvwm func-
              tions only.  It causes execution of a  function  to
              pause  until  a  new window name name appears. Fvwm
              remains fully functional during a  wait.   This  is
              particularly  useful in the InitFunction if you are
              trying to start windows on specific desktops:

                   AddToFunc InitFunction "I" exec xterm -geometry 80x64+0+0
                   +                      "I" Wait xterm
                   +                      "I" Desk    0 2
                   +                      "I" Exec    xmh -font fixed -geometry 507x750+0+0
                   +                      "I" Wait xmh
                   +                      "I" Desk 0 0

              The above function starts an xterm on  the  current
              desk,  waits for it to map itself, then switches to
              desk 2 and starts an xmh.   After  the  xmh  window
              appears control moves to desk 0.

       WindowsDesk arg1 [arg2]
              Moves   the  selected  window  to  another  desktop
              (workspace, room).

              If arg1 is non zero then the  next  desktop  number
              will  be  the  current  desktop  number  plus arg1.
              Desktop numbers can be negative.

              If arg1 is zero then the new desktop number will be

              If  only  one argument is given, moves the selected
              window to the desktop specified as rg1.

       WindowFont fontname
              Makes fvwm use font fontname instead of "fixed" for
              window title-bars.

       WindowId id func
              The  WindowId  function  is similar to the Next and
              Prev funcs, except that it  looks  for  a  specific

                   WindowId 0x34567890 Raise
                   WindowId 0x34567890 WarpToWindow 50 50

              Mostly  this  is useful for functions used with the
              WindowList builtin.

       WindowList [options]
              Generates a pop-up menu (and pops it up)  in  which
              the  title and geometry of each of the windows cur-
              rently on the desk top are shown.  The geometry  of
              iconified windows is shown in parenthesis.  Select-
              ing an item from the window list pop-up  menu  will
              by  default  cause  the  interpreted  function Win-
              dowListFunc to be run with the window  id  of  that
              window passed in as $0.  By default the WindowList-
              Func looks like this:

                   AddToFunc WindowListFunc "I" WindowId $0 Iconify -1
                   +                        "I" WindowId $0 Focus
                   +                        "I" WindowId $0 Raise
                   +                        "I" WindowId $0 WarpToWindow 5p 5p

              You can Destroy the builtin WindowListFunc and cre-
              ate your own if these defaults do not suit you.

              The  options  passed to WindowList can be "NoGeome-
              try",  "Function  <funcname>",  "Desk   <desknum>",
              "CurrentDesk",   "NoIcons",  "Icons",  "OnlyIcons",
              "NoNormal",  "Normal",  "OnlyNormal",   "NoSticky",
              "Sticky",  "OnlySticky", "NoOnTop", "OnTop", "Only-
              OnTop",  "Unsorted",  "UseIconName",  "Alphabetic",

              (Note - normal means not iconic, sticky, or ontop)

              If  you  pass  in  a  function via "Function <func-
              name>", $0 is the window id:

                   AddToFunc IFunc "I" WindowId $0 Iconify
                   WindowList Function IFunc, NoSticky, CurrentDesk, NoIcons

              If you wanted to use the WindowList as an icon man-
              ager, you could invoke the following:

                   WindowList OnlyIcons, Sticky, OnTop, Geometry

              (Note - the "Only" options essentially wipe out all
              other ones...)
              Toggles the window shade feature  for  titled  win-
              dows.   Windows  in the shaded state only display a
              title bar.  If opt is not given, the  window  shade
              state  is  toggled.   If  opt  is  1, the window is
              forced to the shaded state.  If opt is 2, then  the
              window  is  forced  to the non-shaded state.  Maxi-
              mized windows and windows without titles cannot  be

       XORvalue number
              Changes  the  value with which bits are XOR'ed when
              doing rubber-band window moving or resizing.   Set-
              ting this value is a trial-and-error process.

       +      Used  to  continue  adding  to  the  last specified
              decor, function or menu.  See  the  discussion  for
              AddToDecor, AddToFunc, and AddToMenu.


       All  (I  think) window manager operations can be performed
       from the keyboard so mouseless operation should be  possi-
       ble.   In addition to scrolling around the virtual desktop
       by binding the Scroll built-in to appropriate  keys,  pop-
       ups,  move,  resize, and most other built-ins can be bound
       to keys.  Once a built-in function is started the  pointer
       is  moved  by  using the up, down, left, and right arrows,
       and the action is terminated by pressing return.   Holding
       down  the  shift key will cause the pointer movement to go
       in larger steps and holding  down  the  control  key  will
       cause  the  cursor movement to go in smaller steps.  Stan-
       dard emacs and vi cursor movement controls  (^n,  ^p,  ^f,
       ^b,  and  ^j, ^k, ^h, ^l) can be used instead of the arrow


       A sample configuration file, .fvwm2rc,  is  supplied  with
       the  fvwm  distribution.   It is well commented and can be
       used as a source of examples for fvwm configuration.

       In keeping with Debian packaging  guidelines,  you  should
       look in /usr/doc/fvwm2/examples for these sample files.

       If  the  -s  command line argument is not given, fvwm will
       automatically start up on every screen  on  the  specified
       display.   After  fvwm starts each screen is treated inde-
       pendently.  Restarts of fvwm need to  be  performed  sepa-
       rately  on  each  screen.   The  use  of EdgeScroll 0 0 is
       strongly recommended for multi-screen displays.

       You may need to quit on each screen to  quit  from  the  X
       session completely.


       As  of  fvwm  0.99  there were exactly 39.342 unidentified
       bugs.  Identified bugs have  mostly  been  fixed,  though.
       Since then 9.34 bugs have been fixed.  Assuming that there
       are at least 10 unidentified  bugs  for  every  identified
       one,  that  leaves  us  with  39.342  - 9.32 + 10 * 9.34 =
       123.402 unidentified bugs.  If we follow this to its logi-
       cal  conclusion we will have an infinite number of uniden-
       tified bugs before the number of bugs can start to  dimin-
       ish,  at  which point the program will be bug-free.  Since
       this is a computer program infinity =  3.4028e+38  if  you
       don't  insist on double-precision.  At the current rate of
       bug discovery we should expect to achieve  this  point  in
       3.37e+27  years.   I  guess  I better plan on passing this
       thing on to my children....

       Known bugs can be found in the BUGS file in the  distribu-
       tion, and in the TO-DO list.

       Bug  reports can be sent to the FVWM mailing list (see the


       Robert Nation with help from many  people,  based  on  twm
       code,  which  was written by Tom LaStrange.  Rob has since
       'retired' from working on fvwm though,  so  Charles  Hines
       maintains its care and feeding currently.

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